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Modifying PVC with Bio-Based PHA Rubber

Diverse products can be obtained from PHB, including bioplastics, chemicals and feed supplementsA new class of renewable and very efficient multifunctional modifiers for PVC has been developed at Metabolix. This series of biobased PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) copolymers offers toughening, plasticization, and improved processing of all types of PVC compounds. They also have good UV stability and transparency, do not promote biodegradation, and are fungi resistant. Because of their unique miscibility with PVC, the PHA modifiers do not migrate, extract, or volatilize, and they are easy to handle and process at the same conditions as PVC. They offer a new, simplified approach to PVC formulation in which multiple processing and modifying additives could be replaced with a single product, eliminating both undesirable additive interactions and the need to stabilize unstable ingredients.

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Authored by Metabolix Research Staff

2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2005, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1990, 1989, 1987


2014

Padwa, A. (2014) PHA Modifiers as Polymeric Plasticizers and Process Aids. SPE Vinyltec 2014.
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Andrews, M. (2014) Mirel® PHA Polymeric Modifiers and Additives. ADDCOM 2014.
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McQualter, R.B., Somleva, M.N., Gebbie, L.K., Li, X., Petrasovits, L.A., Snell, K.D., Neilsen, L.K. and Brumbley, S.M. “Factors Affecting Polyhydroxybutyrate Accumulation in Mesophyll Cells of Sugarcane and Switchgrass.” BMC Biotechnology (2014) 14:83.
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Somleva, M.N., Xu C.A., Ryan, K.P., Thilmony, R., Peoples, O., Snell, K.D. and Thomson, J. “Transgene Autoexcision in Switchgrass Pollen Mediated by the Bxb1 Recombinase.” BMC Biotechnology (2014) 14:79.
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Mullen, C. A., Boateng, A. A., Schweitzer, D., Sparks, K., and Snell, K. “Mild Pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass Blends for the Production of Bio-oil Enriched with Crotonic Acid.” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, (2014) 107, 40-45.
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Schweitzer, D., Mullen, C. A., Boateng, A. A., Snell, K. D., “Bio-based N-butanol prepared from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate: optimization of the reduction of n-butyl crotonate to n-butanol.” (2015), Organic Process Research and Development DOI:10.1021/op500156b.
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2013

Kann, Y. (2013) Bio-based PHA copolymers as enhancers of properties of recycled PVC. SPE Vinyltec 2013.
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Kann, Y. (2013) Modifying PVC with Bio-based PHA Rubber. Plastics Technology.

Krishnaswamy, R.K., and Padwa, A.R. (2013) Impact Modification of PLA Using Biobased, Biodegradable Mirel™ PHB Copolymers. ANTEC 2013.
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Kann, Y. (2013) Modification of PVC with bio-based PHA rubber. Part 2. ANTEC 2013.
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Somleva, M.N., Peoples, O.P., and Snell, K.D., "PHA Bioplastics, Biochemicals, and Energy from Crops." Plant Biotechnology Journal (2013), pp. 1-20.

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2012

Kann, Y., and Engle, B. (2012) Versatile Vinyl Plastic: Formulating for the Future. SPE Vinyltec.
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Petrasovits, L.A., Zhao, L., McQualter, R.B., Snell, K.D., Somleva, M.N., Patterson, N.A., Nielsen, L.K. and Brumbley, S.M., “Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.” Plant Biotechnology Journal (2012), 10,  pp. 569-578.

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2011

Bohmert-Tatarev, K., McAvoy, S., Daughtry, S., Peoples, O.P., and Snell, K.D., "High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for production of polyhydroxybutyrate." Plant Physiology (2011), 155(4), pp. 1690-1708.

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2009

Snell, K.D., and Peoples, O.P., “PHA bioplastic: A value-added coproduct for biomass biorefineries.”  Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining (2009) 3, pp. 456-467.

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2008

Somleva, M.N., Snell, K.D., Beaulieu, J.J., Peoples, O.P., Garrison, B.R., and Patterson, N.A., "Production of polyhydroxybutyrate in switchgrass,a value-added co-product in an important lignocellulosic biomass crop." Plant Biotechnology Journal (2008) 6, pp. 663–678.

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2007

Kourtz, L., Dillon, K., Daughtry, S., Peoples, O.P., and Snell, K.D., “Chemically inducible expression of the PHB biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsi.” Transgenic Research, Springer (Netherlands), pp. 759-769.

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2005

Kourtz, L., Dillon, K., Daughtry, S., Madison, L.L., Peoples, O.P., and Snell, K.D., "A Novel Thiolase-Reductase Gene Fusion Promotes the Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate in Arabidopsis." Plant Biotechnology Journal (2005), pp. 435-447.

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2004

Bohmert, K., Peoples, O. P., and Snell, K. D., “Metabolic Engineering: Plastids as Bioreactors.” In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Plant Organelles, H. Daniell and C. D. Chase , Kluwer Academic Publishers (Netherlands), 2004: pp. 559-585.

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2002

Snell, K.D., Feng, F., Zong, L., Martin, D., and Madison, L., “YfcX Enables Medium-Chain-Length Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoate) Formation from Fatty Acids in Recombinant Escherichia coli fadB Strains.” Journal of Bacteriology (2002), 184, pp. 5696-5705.

Skraly, F., "Bioplastics." In Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology (2002), J. Wiley & Sons.

Snell, K.D. and Peoples, O.P., "Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymers and Their Production in Transgenic Plants." Metabolic Engineering (2002), 4, pp. 29-40.

Martin, D.P., Williams, S.F., and Skraly, F.A., "Polymers Biosynthesized by Microorganisms: Polyhydroxyalkanoates." In Methods of Tissue Engineering (2002), 48, Academic Press.

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1999

Williams, S.F., Martin, D.P., Horowitz, D.M., and Peoples, O.P., "Mirel applications: addressing the price performance issue." I: Tissue Engineering (1999), Int. J. Biol. Macromol, 25, pp. 111-112.

Horowitz, D.M. et al., "Novel thermal route to an amorphous, film-forming polymer latex." Macromolecules (1999), 32, pp. 3347-3352.

Boynton, Z.L., et al., "Reduction of cell lysate viscosity during processing of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) by chromosomal integration of the staphylococcal nuclease gene in Pseudomonas putida." Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999), 65, pp. 1524-1529.

Madison, L.L. and Huisman, G.W., "Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic." Microbiol. Mol. Biol. (1999), 63, pp. 21-53.

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1997

Williams, S.F. and Peoples, O.P., "Making plastics green." Chem. Br. (1997), 33(12), pp. 29-32.

Martin, D.P. and Gerngross, T.U., "Aspects of PHB granule formation in vitro." In International Sympoium on Bacteral Polyhydroxyalkanoates (1997), NRC Research Press (Ottawa), pp. 28-35.

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1996

Williams, S.F. and Peoples, O.P., "Biodegradable plastics from plants." CHEMTECH (1996), 9, pp. 34-44.

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1995

Gerngross, T.U. and Martin, D.P., "Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of poly[(R)-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate]: formation of macroscopic granules in vitro." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1995), 92, pp. 6279-6283.

Horowitz, D.M. et al., "Biomimetic, amorphous granules of polyhydroxyalkanoates: composition, mobility, and stabilization in vitro by proteins." Can. J. Microbiol. (1995), 41, pp. 115-123.

Williams, S.F. et al., "Metabolic engineering and applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates (Mirels)." In Proceedings of the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry (1995), pp. 1130-1140.

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1994

Gerngross, T.U. et al., "Overexpression and purification of the soluble polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Alcaligenes eutrophus: evidence for a required post-translational modification for catalytic activity." Biochemistry (1994), 33, pp. 9311-9320.

Horowitz, D.M. et al., "Phase separation within artificial granules from a blend of polyhydroxybutyrate and polyhydroxyoctanoate: biological implications." Polymer (1994), 34, pp. 5079-5083.

Horowitz, D.M. et al., "Amorphous, biomimetic granules of polyhydroxybutyrate: preparation, characterization, and biological implications." J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1994), 116, pp. 2695-2702.

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1993

Horowitz, D.M. et al., "Amorphous polymer granules." Nature (1993), 363, p. 23.

Gerngross, T.U. et al., "Immunocytochemical analysis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16: localization of the synthase enzyme at the surface of PHB granules." J. Bacteriol. (1993), 175, pp. 5289-5293.

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1992

Williams, S.F. et al., "Biosynthetic thiolase from Zoogloea ramigera: mutagenesis of the putative active-site base Cys-378 to Ser-378 changes the partitioning of the acetyl-S-enzyme intermediate." J. Biol. Chem. (1992), 267, pp. 16041-16043.

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1990

Peoples, O.P. et al., "Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): A model system for biopolymer engineering." In Novel Biodegradable Microbial Polymers (1990), Kluyer Academic Publishers (Dordrecht), pp. 191-202.

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1989

Peoples, O.P. et al., "Fine structural analysis of the Zoogloea ramigera phbA-phbB locus encoding 3-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase: nucleotide sequence of phbB." Mol. Microbiol. (1989), 3, pp. 349-357.

Peoples, O.P. et al., "Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Identification and characterization of the PHB polymerase gene (phbC)." J. Biol. Chem. (1989), 264, pp. 15298-15303.

Peoples, O.P. et al., "Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. Characterization of the genes encoding ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase." J. Biol. Chem. (1989), 264, pp. 15293-15297.

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1987

Peoples, O.P. et al., "Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): a model system for biopolymer engineering." Prog. Biotechnol. (1987), 3, pp. 51-56.

Peoples, O.P. et al., "Biosynthetic thiolase from Zoogloea ramigera. III. Isolation and characterization of the structural gene." J. Biol. Chem. (1987), 262, pp. 97-102.

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